These five concepts are part of a poststructural futures toolbox. There is a strong link, of course, to other futures methods.
Religion was ignored altogether not only in IR, but also in political science in general Wald and Wilcox ;Bellin In recent years, IR began to consider the role of culture and religion. Religion entered the field a decade later alongside a scholarly focus on ethnic and religious conflicts and religious-inspired terrorism Fox This essay reviews the main scholarly trends in the study of culture and religion as sources for conflict and resources for peace.
After a brief survey of the early works of political theorists regarding religion and war, this essay turns to review how the topic has been understood within IR. As the essay demonstrates, the attempt to deal with religion and culture as part of identity is a source of much confusion.
In IR, religion is usually an independent variable that causes war or peace, or an intervening variable that shapes the probability of a conflict and its violent potential Hasenclever and Rittberger Some scholars focus on what religion says, while others research what religion does; some scholars deal with religion in the individual level, while others emphasize the societal and organizational aspects of religion Haynes The next section reviews the ways IR scholars define culture and religion and suggests that religion should be viewed as a part of culture.
The following sections discuss the clash of civilizations debate; the relationship between fundamentalism and violence; religion as a cause of war; religion and the intensity of war; culture, religion and diplomacy with some references to cross-cultural negotiation; and culture and the democratic peace with some references to the debate regarding religion and democracy.
The essay concludes with suggestions for future directions for research. Conceptualizing Culture and Religion in IR Scholarship Despite some exceptions, such as Adda BozemanJack Snyderand to some extent Robert JervisIR scholars did not realize the importance of culture and religion to the understanding of peace and conflict until the post-Cold War era and the introduction of constructivism.
The first task facing IR scholars trying to incorporate culture and religion is the task of definition. The understanding that these concepts can be rather distinct, but at the same time intrinsically connected has been a source for much confusion and contention.
As this section suggests, different IR scholars treat culture and religion in different ways and sometimes use these concepts interchangeably with other concepts, such as norms, identity, and ethnicity.
The first example for such confusion exists in the writings of IR scholars from the English School, who understand religion as the main component in a society's culture. To Bozeman, for example, culture means civilization, and what dictates the mode of thinking and the normative order in a civilization is religion.
Similarly, as Buzan This view of religion as the core component of civilization is also shared by non-English School scholars such as Huntington and some of the authors in the volume edited by Katzenstein While English School theorists understand culture as part of religion, the constructivist theoretical framework does the opposite.
In constructivist studies, culture includes religion as well as other concepts such as identity, norms, or ideas Lapid and Kratochwil ; Katzenstein ; Checkel ; Desch For others, such as Avruch However, the increasing interest in communal conflicts, such as ethno-national wars, and especially the September 11th attacks, have led to a resurgence of religion in the study of world politics Fox Religion presents further definitional problems.
The definition must encompass numerous but exclude other phenomena such as ideologies or cults Philpott Some of the early studies that deal with religion and international conflict, such as RyanAzarGurrand Gagnonconsider religion to be part of a larger concept of ethnicity, or communality.
Correlation of War COW data uses both religion and ethnicity in measuring culture see Henderson Finally, Anthony Smith traces modern nationalism to religious origins Smith ; see also Brubaker Haynes provides a brief discussion about the definition dilemma and draws on Aquaviva while offering two sociological definitions.
On the other hand, religion and culture are intrinsically connected by myths, practices, and moral judgments that make religion a part of culture. These references offer different treatments of war and peace.
Some describe human nature as aggressive or as pursuing peace, some explain war and peace as a result of divine intervention and will, and some define the conditions in which war and peace can be achieved.
Some references in sacred texts condition peace on the society's moral behavior. Other texts determine with whom, when, and how a war can be held and a peace treaty can be signed.Study Guide for The Clash of Civilizations. The Clash of Civilizations study guide contains a biography of Horatio Alger, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Clash Of Civilizations Essay examples Words | 7 Pages The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington is an extremely well written and insightful book.
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Praise for How Civilizations Die "In How Civilizations Die, David Goldman muses on population trends and religion with a breathtaking depth, originality, and alphabetnyc.com of his startling but documented predictions: Europe is in its death throes. Muslim demographic collapse will undercut Islamic triumphalism.
Religion defines cultures, changes history, and molds civilizations. During the seventeenth century in the New England and Southern colonies religion did just this. Religion took the settlers bound for the New England and Southern colonies people of starting in the same place, and .
Transcript of How Religion affects the development of early civilizations. How Religion affects the development of early civilizations. Characteristics of a Civilization There is a social structure in every civilization to show the different levels in the city.
It can be based on jobs, wealth, high ranks, etc.